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"Senator" and "Sen." redirect here. For other uses, see Senator (disambiguation), Sen (disambiguation), and Senate (disambiguation).
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The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum
The debating chamber of the Senate of the Czech Republic in the Wallenstein Palace

A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Latin: senex meaning "the elder" or "old man") and therefore the wiser and more experienced members of the society or ruling alt. Thus, the literal meaning of the word "senate" is Assembly of Elders.

Many countries have an assembly named a senate, composed of senators who may be elected, appointed, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates typically serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house, whose members are usually elected. Most senates have asymmetrical duties and powers compared with their respective lower house meaning they have special duties, for example to fill important political positions or to pass special laws. Conversely many senates have limited powers in changing or stopping bills under consideration and efforts to stall or veto a bill may be bypassed by the lower house or another branch of government.[1]